Sources & Citations

Sources & Citations

Quick Medical Disclaimer:

Here at Built By Plants , we are not doctors or medical professionals, and we don’t claim to be. Therefore, the information we provide is based on our personal (anecdotal) experience based on our collective experience as Personal Trainers and working with clients in the fitness space, and is for educational and informational purposes only.

Nothing on our site should ever be taken or construed as professional medical advice, and you should always consult your physician or other healthcare provider before changing your diet or starting an exercise program.

The content on this site is made available to you as fitness and nutrition tools for your own use. While we draw on our prior expertise and background in many areas, you acknowledge that we are supporting you in our roles exclusively as non-professional online fitness coaches only.

So again – we provide information concerning, but not limited to, exercise, fitness and nutrition, but should never be construed as medical advice.

You can always get more information on our disclaimers on our Terms Of Service page, which includes more details on our Medical Disclaimer, Personal Disclaimer, and Results Disclaimer regarding all content on this site.

Still here? Good!

Now that the legal disclaimers are out of the way, let’s dig into the studies, research, and citations that we draw upon when creating our fitness and nutrition recommendations.

(Please note: if you have a specific question on anything regarding our exercise or nutrition content or programs, please email and we’ll be happy to help.)

Diet Psychology

  • Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. – People drastically underestimate calorie intake (47%) and overestimate energy expenditure (51%) on low-calorie diets – (study
  • Ice cream illusions bowls, spoons, and self-served portion sizes – when nutrition experts were given a larger bowl, they served themselves 31.0% more without being aware of it. Their servings increased by 14.5% when they were given a larger serving spoon – (study)
  • Clean Eating Myth – (article)

Metabolism & Energy Expenditure

  • Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) – accounts for all activity that is NOT planned exercise. Can vary by ~2000 calorie between individuals – (study) (article)
  • Meal Frequency and Energy Balance – no difference in weight loss between different meal frequencies when calories are equal. (meals ranged from 1-17/day) – (study, study, study)
  • Metabolic Rate Overview – Lyle McDonald (article) (article)
  • Is My Slow Metabolism Stalling My Weight Loss? – (article)
  • Metabolic Adaptation to Increased Energy Expenditure – (study)
  • Glycemic Index – (article)
  • Impact of long-term lifestyle programs on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese participants – systematic review showing diet + exercise > diet alone > exercise alone = (study)

Nutrition for Weight Loss

  • Increase Protein Leads to Fewer Calories Eaten by ~ 441 cals  – (study)
  • Higher Protein Diet Leads to Less Loss of LBM in HypoCaloric Diet – (study)
  • How to Deal With Hunger – (Lyle Mcdonald Article)
  • Protein Breakfast Increases fullness and fat burning – (study)
  • Effect of Breakfast Recommendations on Weight Loss – no difference in dieters who eat or don’t eat breakfast when equal calories – (study)
  • Expert Review of The Case Against Sugar by Gary Taubes – (article)
  • Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss – no difference between diet of 43% and 4% sucralose with matched calorie intake (study)
  • Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates – Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize. (study)
  • Low-fat vs. low-carb? Major study concludes: it doesn’t matter for weight loss (article)

Nutrition for Health

  • High Protein Diets, IGF-1, and Cancer [Examine] – no direct link between high protein and increase mortality/cancer – (article)
  • Low Sugar Diets and sugar facts [Mike Matthews] – why sugar is not the enemy and what actually matters – (article) (article
  • Tubers as fallback foods and their impact on Hadza hunter-gatherers – Hadza eat mostly carbs, and coming from berries/honey. They prefer honey as their main source of calories – (study)
  • 21 of the Best Arguments For & Against Coconut Oil [Examine] – (article)

Resistance Training

  • Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. – various health benefits of strength training review (study)

Exercise For Weight Loss

  • Exercise Alone Not Effective For Weight Loss – Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise programs of 6-12 months induce a modest reduction in weight and waist circumference in overweight and obese populations. Our results show that isolated aerobic exercise is not an effective weight loss therapy in these patients. – (study)
  • Resistance weight training – Resistance weight training during caloric restriction enhances lean body weight maintenance – (study)


  • Full Guide: Caffeine & Resistance Training – (article
  • Vitamin D Toxicity – (article)
  • Vitamin D & Absorption w/ Fat Intake – (article)

We’re constantly expanding this page as we find more evidence to support our anecdotal experience in working with clients. As we find new studies to share, we’ll add them here.

–The Built By Plants Team